PresentFocus "Explorations in Awareness"
The only constant in life is change
Articles coming in the near future
Psychological Paradigms. There are five major psychological paradigms. To
understand what a paradigm is, consider that "hard" sciences like physics, biology, and
chemistry have a single paradigm. A paradigm is a boundary, or set of rules that guide
conducted. That behavior science has five paradigms is testimony to how new the field
is and how one paradigm cannot entirely explain human behavior.

The five paradigms are: 1) Psychoanalytic Psychology, which was originated by Freud
who marked the beginning of modern psychology. 2) Behavioral Psychology, which
considers the human a black box whose response can be manipulated through specific
stimulus. 3) Humanistic Psychology, which treats a person with respect and dignity. 4)
Physiological Psychology, which sees a person as a collection of cells that are
chemically driven. 5) Transpersonal Psychology, which is related to humanistic
psychology and includes the study of a person's spiritual organization.

Human Development. There are several models for human development. This part
of behavioral science did not become a serious field of study until Piaget engaged in a
systematic study of childhood development in the 1940s. It was not until the late 1950s
that Erikson put forth his theories on lifespan development. Currently, there are stage
models from Kholberg and others that are feature specific rather than age specific as in
Erikson's model. In addition to the stage models of development, there is a spiral
dynamic model and a hybrid stage/spiral dynamic transpersonal model that is an
integral model. I have developed a three dimensional solid model that transcends each
of these models and integrates with a model of the human psyche.

Ego. Ego will be discussed from its historical perspective as it was originated by Freud
and from a behavioral point of view. The discussion will extend to what spiritual
disciplines mean by dropping the ego. It is a very complex topic that goes to the root
of "who we are". To just drop the ego would mean ceasing to exist.

Emotions. In this article, I will discuss emotion from a cognitive perspective and relate
the knowledge gained from this study to how emotion works from a transpersonal and
physiological perspective.

Learning. How and what we learn is an important topic that reaches into our
fundamental perceptions of ourselves.

Flow Theory. This is the theory of operating in the zone. It was first introduced in the
1970's and is closely related to theories of learning and motivation.

Motivation. This article will discuss different theories, which are based on behavior
and humanistic principles, depending on the theory. Most behaviorally oriented
theories are favored by business and other theories related to personal achievement
are related to a humanistic paradigm. Emotion is closely related to this subject.
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