- Psychosynthesis is a significant extension of Freud's psychoanalysis. Roberto
Assagioli was one of Freud's contemporaries and his development of
psychosynthesis created a split with Freud, who was unable accept any dissent
or modification of his views.
- Jungian Analysis was developed by Carl Jung who also split with Freud as to
the structure of the unconscious mind. He used Archetypes to show
commonality between people and cultures throughout history.
- Behavioral Psychology began with the work of John Watson who attempted to
apply methods of science to legitimize the field. In the middle of the 20th century
B. F. Skinner added a theory he called Instrumental Conditioning, which added
to the work of Ivan Pavlov on Classical Conditioning. A second wave of
behavior psychology called Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a combination of
Behavioral Psychology and Cognitive Psychology, which hit the scene in 1965
with the introduction of a book called Cognitive Psychology by Ulric Neisser,
who coined the term. A third wave of behavior psychology called Mindfulness-
based Cognitive Therapy continues the evolution of behavioral therapy. It is
interesting to note that a psychology that started by treating people like a black
box is now embracing techniques such as mindfulness, meditation, and other
cognitive methods that look more spiritual than behavioral.
- Humanistic Psychology was developed within the oppressive context of
behaviorism in the mid 20th century. During that time a professor of psychology
could lose his job for even speaking of mindfulness. Humanistic psychology
developed out of philosophical humanism, phenomenology, existential
philosophy, and eastern philosophy. Humanistic psychology has also been
referred to as Positive Psychology, which emphasizes the positive character of
the human psyche and the connection we all share as social creatures. Some
notable figures in the development of humanistic psychology are Abraham
Maslow, and Rollo May. Maslow developed the hierarchy of needs and coined
the term self-actualization as the highest level of human achievement. Self-
actualization is a western term for the spiritual concepts of awakening,
enlightenment, and self-realization.
- Transpersonal Psychology followed in the 1970s to include the study of
spirituality as part of the human condition. The work of William James,
Abraham Maslow, Carl Jung and others contributed to establishing this field of
psychological investigation. My PhD advisor Bob Frager founded the Institute
of Transpersonal psychology. The American Psychological Association (APA)
has yet to recognize transpersonal psychological as a division of the APA. It is
interesting to note that other branches of psychology are moving toward the
ideas put forth in this field of investigation.
- Somatic Psychology specializes in techniques that integrate the mind and the
body in ways that "talk therapy" cannot. Somatic techniques have been
successfully used to treat conditions such as severe trauma and Post Traumatic
Stress Syndrome (PTSD).
Philosophy - links coming soon.
PresentFocus "Explorations in Awareness"
|The only constant in life is change
|The Past is
The Future is
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